The Nagas

Hill Peoples of Northeast India

Project Introduction The Naga Database

typescript - J.H. Hutton tour diaries in the Naga Hills

caption: fixing Ralung boundary; Hovishe of Sotoemi offered site of Hanye; making a reserved forest; Kiyezu not allowed to migrate to Pembvo; Chekrama illegally gave land to Kiyezu's village
medium: tours
person: Hovishe/ of SotoemiPembvoBarnes/ MrKiyezuAsaoPesopuHozhetoSantemoShaw/ MrKruzetoViseRillo
ethnicgroup: LhotaSema
location: Phekerkrima (Phekekrima) Ralang (Ralung) Dhrungdhroyongthang-Eyak Dhrungdhroyongthang hill Tahkchung stream Kiseng stream Mailang (Mailong) Hanye Pembvotsu stream Pembvo ridge Rengma pani stream Yampha stream Kiyezu Diyung R. (Dayang R.) Tila R. Rangazumi (Rongazu) Chekrema (Chekrama) Phekerkrima (Phekekrima) Pembvo
date: 9.5.1920
person: Hutton/ J.H.
date: 4.5.1920-11.5.1920
person: Pitt Rivers Museum Archive, Oxford
refnum: Hutton Ms. Box 2
text: 9th
text: To Phekekrima. Unfortunately the day was wet and misty and I did not see quite as much of the land between the Government path and the plains as I wished, but enough I think for my purposes. I definitely fixed the boundary up to which Ralung may cultivate, viz.-
text: The narrow neck called Dhrungdhroyongthang-Eyak, at the foot of the southern slope of the Dhrungdhroyongthang hill, and the nullahs leading down from this neck of the Tahkchung stream on the east and to the Keseng stream to the west. From the foot of the eastern nullah the Tahkchung streams becomes the boundary separating Ralung from Mailong land while from the foot of the western nullah Ralung are prohibited from cultivating, west or south of the Kiseng stream. This gives Ralung all the land actually cultivated by that village formerly, before they migrated to Mailong, and more than enough for the 16 to 20 houses that have now returned to their old site.
text: To Hovishe of Sotoemi I offered the site of Hanye, a hill at a low elevation west of the Rongazu-Ralung path, warning him that he would be limited in cultivation by the Kiseng stream on one side and by the Pembvotsu stream on the other, also by a line which I propose to lay, when (and if) Hanye's site is cleared and occupied, to preserve from jhuming the ridge along which the Bagtimukh path goes. I told him that he might expect that this line would fall about half a mile below the path on the plains side as a matter of fact it would probably be much less than that. The Pembvotsu rises where the Pembvo ridge leaves the Rongazu-Ralung path on the plains side of it in the angle, and runs into the Rengma pani (Yampha) stream.
text: On the Hill side of the path I gave orders that the jungle between the path and the Tahkchung stream, from the Ralung boundary just fixed to the boundary of Kiyezu's land as fixed below, would be treated as Government Reserve Forest, the right of the Lhota villages to cut cane for bridges etc., being specifically reserved to them, as they cannot cultivate their lands on this side of the Dayang without cane to build bridges. Except for the right of the Lhotas to cut cane I have ordered this strip of jungle to be left entirely alone. I then dealt with the case of Kiyezu's village. It is probably true that Kiyezu has not enough land though he is very extravagant with what he has, not even bothering to cultivate a cleared jhum for the second year, as its yield is small compared to that of the land that has not been touched for three generations or more. He wanted to remove his village to the site of Pembvo on the plea that that there was better water there. The latter site however is much lower and the whole request merely a dodge to grab land. I told him that on no account should I ever let him migrate from his present healthy site to Pembvo. I gave him permission however to cultivate the side of Pembvo ridge nearest his village, leaving Asao and Hozheto to demarcate the centre of the ridge from Pembvo's grave to Yampha (Rengma pani) and warning him that if Pembvo's grave was interfered with he would forfeit the extra land now given. The burning of the inside of one of the trees on Pembvo's grave (typical Sema vandalism) had annoyed the Lhotas. On the Tahkchung side of the Tila joining Rongazu to Pembvo I extend Kiyezu's boundary from the khel where "the wild pigs had eaten up the boundary stones laid by Mr. Barnes" to the source of the main stream of the Tahkchung in the narrow neck called by the Lhotas "Pembvo-oke" where the defensive ditch of Pembvo's village was. This gives him an infinitisimal increase only on the Tahkchung side. On the Yampha side he gets I should say about as much as he can jhum in two years. As he has already seven years jhum land this would give him a 9 year cycle I am not sure that it is enough. A ten year cycle would do well enough, but even that would not allow for much increase in his population. It will quite likely be necessary to add to his present land the rest of Pembvo or part of it, or some land on the Chekrama side. It is not however possible to say until an idea can be formed of the area he has now obtained on Pembvo. It may be less than I think or (more likely) a great deal more. Meanwhile the opposite side of Pembvo as far as the Pembvo-tsu is reserved and may be given to Kiyezu or Hovishe as may be necessary.
text: I do not think much of Hovishe's chance on Hanye; it is very low, but he says he has been there and finds the water good and the site suitable and thinks the land will be enough for 30 house-holds. I told him that I would not allow less than 20 to settle there.
text: The Dobashis with me throughout were Pesopu, Asao, Hozheto and Santemo.
text: After leaving Kiyezu's village I went on to Chekrama and thence to Phekekrima. At Chekrama I wanted to know what they meant by leaving to Kiyezu's village land in the mile reserved by Mr. Barnes. They replied that after Mr. Barnes had reserved this land he sent Mr. Shaw with Kruzeto, Vise (since dead) and Rillo to fix boundaries and that Mr. Shaw definitely gave Chekrama up to the 20th mile which is close to Kiyezu's village and that they therefore considered they were entitled to leave it to Kiyezu. Kiyezu's people, of course, said that Chekrama said all sorts of "phutani words" about the land belonging to them and not to the Sarkar etc., but most of it probably invented. The Chekrama Gaonbura however was not there so I ordered him to be sent on before I left Phekekrima.
text: The rough sketch of land referred to. The land round Hanye is less a great deal than would appear from this sketch, I think.