The Nagas

Hill Peoples of Northeast India

Project Introduction The Naga Database
  1. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Namkia private collection Impoi 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next stone-dragging accident Graham Bower Ursula Previous Zemi 27 stone-dragging accident notes Namkia Zemi Impoi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection THE ACCURSED STONE Many years ago Impoi were dragging a memorial..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  2. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection raiding notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection When Zemi villages were at feud or on raiding terms sentries used to be set around the fields, always looking, looking for raiders. No one could go to their fields in families or..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  3. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection man-traps notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Formerly, it is said, certain unamiable individuals (or villages) used to set "deadfall" traps by paths used by travellers. The traps were cunningly disguised as shelters, such..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  4. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Iseing Namkia Namrebuing of Asalu private collection Izeingram Leikul Impoi 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next Angami raiding Graham Bower Ursula Previous Zemi Angami 27 Angami raiding notes Iseing Namkia Namrebuing of Asalu Zemi Angami Izeingram Leikul Impoi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  5. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 'Tsiuperai and Bangklawang' - myth notes Kamadile Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Tsiuperai, the spirit of the hill Japvo, courted Kamadile, the beautiful daughter of Bangklawang, who was king over all things on earth; and ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  6. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Namkia private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next 'The Mithan' or 'Hugining' - myth Graham Bower Ursula Previous Zemi 27 'The Mithan' or 'Hugining' - myth notes Namkia Zemi 1940-09-01:1940-09-31 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection A youth and a girl once lived in ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  7. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Phellong (Impuilong) Angami raiding notes Zemi Angami Phellong (Impuilong) Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection The Angamis once raided Impuilong (Phellong) when the men were in the fields, killing the old people and children. When ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  8. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Shemkhor's cloth notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection headman of Shemkhor with Kachari Kings cloth Shemkhor's cloth nagasketchesS46921.jpg Mokordhon the Kachari king gave it them on his death-bed, as a permanent protection ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  9. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Shangshum private collection Nungbi Khulen Nungbi Khunou (Nungbi Khunao) 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next Tangkhul pottery-making Graham Bower Ursula Previous Tangkhul 27 Tangkhul pottery-making notes Shangshum Tangkhul Nungbi Khulen Nungbi Khunou (Nungbi Khunao) Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  10. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection burial customs. notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection BURIAL CUSTOMS AMONG ZEMI NAGAS. When death is imminent those in the house raise a wailing and outcry, while one of them closes the eyes and mouth. Others, who have been ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  11. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Haichangnang of Asalu Sogang of Asalu Imaba of Asalu private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next slaves Graham Bower Ursula Previous Zemi 27 slaves notes Haichangnang of Asalu Sogang of Asalu Imaba of Asalu Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Slaves among the ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  12. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection landslips notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection If a slip occurs in a jhum, the owner must perform a ceremony with a pig as sacrifice, or he or she will certainly be ill andor die. Next R86258 R86258 Previous R86256 R86256 ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  13. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Hangrum Hangrum's migration notes Zemi Hangrum Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Migration Hangrum community arrived at their present position by the following stages, from Noui, their original home:- 1) Thusann(?) in N.Hills 2) ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  14. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Hangrum sepoys notes Zemi Hangrum Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Note. The Hangrum brush with the sepoys. Information from the former bungalow chowkidar, who was arrested by the sepoys and sitting a prisoner in the bungalow site..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  15. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection marriage incest notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Incest. Occasionally occurs secretly between unmarried pairs, but is kept strictly secret. The young sinners will catch if from their parents if they find out. If they ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  16. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection marriage marriage links notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Formerly marriage tended to be with families whose daughters were regularly satisfactory; i.e. A marries Z, and his younger brother B, admiring her, takes a wife ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  17. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Ramgakpa private collection Gobin 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next marriage Graham Bower Ursula Previous Zemi 27 marriage notes Ramgakpa Zemi Gobin Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Marriage (Gobin) A Senior member of boy's family, or failing him, a relative, broaches the..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  18. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Mbairong of Impoi Songang Namkreubuing Namrebuing Haitsangnang Haikelungba of Asalu private collection Impoi Asalu 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next Angami raiding and migrations of Impoi Graham Bower Ursula Previous Zemi 27 Angami raiding and migrations of Impoi notes Mbairong of Impoi Songang ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  19. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection migration of the Zemi notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection All the Zemi came from Remdi (Remdhi), from which they went to Remna, from which they went to Nui; thence Thusann; Imphal; Bopungwemi; Nenglokuloa, near Hajaichak; ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  20. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Laisong (Laison) Kepelo divorce notes Zemi Laisong (Laison) Kepelo Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Laison-Kepelo divorce case. Girl (K) married boy (L). No child after 3 years. Girl ran away home. Boy expressed his willingness to..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  21. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Ritening of Impoi Baker Stuart S.D.O. Perry Mr. Booth Mr. private collection Impoi Gareoloa Asalu Gamvom Ngalsong Hakaokhang Tole Pangmual Longkhai (Longkai) 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next scarcity in Impoi - report Graham Bower Ursula Previous Zemi 27 scarcity in Impoi - report notes Ritening of..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  22. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Nriami clan Neomi clan private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next exogamy Graham Bower Ursula Previous Zemi 27 exogamy notes Nriami clan Neomi clan Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Exogamous Groups The Zemi have two main divisions, Nriami and Neomi, both of..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  23. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Nenglo notes on Nenglo village notes Zemi Nenglo Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Notes on Nenglo Village (Zemi Naga), North Cachar Hills. 1. This is a village of 40 odd houses and one of the few in which the Neomi clan ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  24. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection head-taking notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Ho Ho asan Ka-ha-zam! Ambo, Ambo! (Heads taken; a repetition for each head taken). Ho Ho-hazam, hazam - Ao-ee! (Enemy wounded, but escaped) (done from a distance when ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  25. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection conditions of marriage incest notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Incest It would seem that while originally the Nriami and probably the Nkuoami were strictly exogamous groups, the rules have in many villages been relaxed ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  26. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection conditions of marriage love marriages notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Many marriages are the result of a couple falling in love and of a courtship in the dekachang and elsewhere, but among the richest and poorest ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  27. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection conditions of marriage parents' role in marriage-making notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection When the parents of an eligible young man feel it is time he married, they begin to drop hints and make inquiries as to whether he..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  28. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection conditions of marriage bride-price notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection On the day, the boy's parents go to the girl's house with a party of friends and kinsmen, choosing the best debaters available, and the mathais, if the..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  29. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection conditions of marriage elopement notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection The above-mentioned ceremonies are those customary in a formal marriage, generally between families of some standing, and they are also observed when the..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  30. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection conditions of marriage residence after marriage notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Residence and place of cohabitation Husband and wife live in the same house. A young couple do not usually have a separate house, but the ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  31. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Asalu conditions of marriage bride-price notes Zemi Asalu Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection One girl in Asalu cost her father-in-law - nominally, at least - over Rs 200-, which included Rs 80- in cash, a mithan and a necklace; but ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  32. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Naga nationalism notes articles 1961-01-01:1961-12-31 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection [9] [draft article] The Commonwealth's Unknown War : a summing-up by Ursula Graham Bower For the best part of seven years the Unknown War has ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  33. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection agriculture - harvesting notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Agriculture If a villager is having difficulty in getting his crop reaped, through illness or other causes, his fellow-villagers may decide to do a day's work ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  34. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection [11] Halei-Na (March) (Heramui must be performed before this genna. After Heramui cucumbers, maize and kachu are planted in the old jhums.) Next R86280 R86280 Previous ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  35. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna first day. Harrok-na (jhum-firing genna) notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 1st day. Harrok-na (jhum-firing genna). Formerly it was forbidden to bring water into the house on this day for fear of the jhums ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  36. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna second day. Halei-na notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 2nd day. Halei-na. The village is strictly closed. Everyone rises fasting. The old man of the house, or if there is none, one called for the purpose, ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  37. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna third day. Ka-ntoa-na notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 3rd day. Ka-ntoa-na. In the morning the young men go fasting to a place near the path below the village, dig up a patch of ground, plant rice, and ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  38. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna fourth day. Kangim-bu-na notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 4th day. Kangim-bu-na. The village is strictly closed. No water may be carried or work done. The girls of each dekachang have a feast, bringing a ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  39. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna fifth day. Ntoa-gwa-na notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 5th day. Ntoa-gwa-na. First thing in the morning the buck who planted the rice goes fasting with one or two others to one of the nearer jhums and ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  40. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna sixth day. Haba-para-piak-penna notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 6th day. Haba-para-piak-penna. In the morning all the women and girls go to the path below the village, each taking some cotton seeds and a..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  41. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna seventh day. Kan-tsi-na notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 7th day. Kan-tsi-na. On this day, or any convenient day when going to the jhums, each man makes a little fenced square with four sticks and digs up..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  42. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna eighth day. Heliem-zao-na notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 8th day. Heliem-zao-na. No field work is done, but the village is not closed. All is made ready for the following day. A pig is bought [sic]. Men..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  43. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Halei-na genna ninth day. Heliem-na notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 9th day. Heliem-na. The pig is turned loose and caught by the bucks in the morning, and is then taken to the hazoa (Impoi and Asalu) or the lower ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  44. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Abung Shamshu Arjun Jeffery C.F. Gaideleu private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from Ursula Graham Bower preparations for trip to Kakadan Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from Ursula Graham Bower preparations for trip to Kakadan letters notes Abung Shamshu Arjun..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  45. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Ukhrul letters from Ursula Graham Bower preparations for trip to Nungbi and Chingjaroi letters notes Ukhrul 1939-02-12:1939-02-12 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Feb 12th 1939 Ukhrul, Manipur State My dear Humps, ........I am ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  46. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Luikai of Nungbi Khunao Abung Saknio of Ukhrul Chinaorang of Nungbi Khunao private collection Chingjaroi 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from Ursula Graham Bower description of servants Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from Ursula Graham Bower description of servants letters..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  47. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Jessami letters from Ursula Graham Bower witchcraft at Jessami letters notes Khizami Jessami 1939-03-30:1939-03-30 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection We had a spot of bother on arriving here from Kharasom. Both Chingjaroi and ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  48. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Luchai letters from Ursula Graham Bower were-tiger letters notes Luchai 1939-03-30:1939-03-30 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection On my last trip I went to a Tangkhul village called Luchai, and during the night, so the coolies swore,..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  49. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Saknio private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from Ursula Graham Bower flirting Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from Ursula Graham Bower flirting letters notes Saknio 1939-03-30:1939-03-30 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection We have just..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  50. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection letters from Ursula Graham Bower women; spitting letters notes 1939-03-30:1939-03-30 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection All the women who have nothing else to do have come into the basha uninvitd and are having a field-day among my ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  51. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection letters from Ursula Graham Bower film letters notes 1939-03-30:1939-03-30 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Kodaks have sent up a parcel of cine films, most of which are pretty good; I'm most relieved considering the miles I hiked ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  52. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection letters from Ursula Graham Bower medical work letters notes 1939-03-30:1939-03-30 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection I am due back in Imphal on April 20th, but considering how little we have adhered to schedule, that's nothing to go..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  53. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection letters from Ursula Graham Bower back to Imphal; sadness at leaving letters notes 1939-04-21:1939-04-21 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection April 21st Well, here we are back in Imphal at last, the party disbanded and the long trek ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  54. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Luikai private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from Ursula Graham Bower description of Luikai Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from Ursula Graham Bower description of Luikai letters notes Luikai Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection [first ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  55. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Jangsang private collection Jessami 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from Ursula Graham Bower Jessami without a Compounder; witchcraft incident Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from Ursula Graham Bower Jessami without a Compounder; witchcraft incident letters notes Jangsang ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  56. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection letters from Ursula Graham Bower from Jessami to Huining letters notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection From Jessami we turned south again to Kharasom and Chingjaroi, then to Paowi, then to Kachai, where we met a chicken-pox ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  57. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Mills J.P. Betts Tim Godfrey private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower letters notes Mills J.P. Betts Tim Godfrey 1945-11-30:1945-11-30 Graham Bower Ursula..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  58. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Mills J.P. Archer private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower letters notes Mills J.P. Archer 1945-11-06:1945-11-06 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  59. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Mills J.P. Betts Tim private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower letters notes Mills J.P. Betts Tim 1945-10-29:1945-10-29 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  60. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Mills J.P. Perry Betts Tim private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower letters notes Mills J.P. Perry Betts Tim 1945-10-23:1945-10-23 Graham Bower Ursula ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  61. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Mills J.P. Archer private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 letters notes Next letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 letters from J.P. Mills to Ursula Graham Bower letters notes Mills J.P. Archer 1945-02-20:1945-02-20 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  62. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Gobin Laisong marriage notes Zemi Gobin Laisong Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Marriage. If a boy gets married, a girl of the same house may not marry that year. If one boy gets married, another from the same house may not get ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  63. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Ngwobuing of Thingje private collection 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next marriage and 'apotia' deaths Graham Bower Ursula Previous Zemi 27 marriage and 'apotia' deaths notes Ngwobuing of Thingje Zemi 1944-02-01:1944-02-31 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection MARRIAGE AND "..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  64. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection food taboos notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Food Taboos. The following may be eaten by old men only: 1. python 2. tiger, leopard-cat, leopard, and jungle-cats generally. 3. game which had strayed into the village and been ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  65. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection use of personal names notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Personal names The use of these is very restricted, as it implies parental or near-parental relationship in the speaker. They are used only 1) by parents, friends ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  66. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection theft notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Thefts Thefts of dhan from another village were punished - if the culprits were traced - by heavy fines, a mithan, a deo-moni necklace, or even land. Thefts of dhan in the village ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  67. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection games notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Boys 1) A brass earring is put in a hole in the ground, and all the players put their hands in the hole and grab for the ring at a given single. The one who gets it runs off and is ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  68. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Nungbi Khunou (Nungbi Khunao) artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower Tangkhul pottery notes Tangkhul Nungbi Khunou (Nungbi Khunao) 1940-02-15:1940-02-15 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Tangkhul pottery, Nungbi Khunao 1) "..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  69. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Ngapum artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower married woman's walking stick notes Tangkhul Ngapum 1940-02-15:1940-02-15 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 3) "Theithing" - Tangkhul married woman's walking stick. Given to a girl ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  70. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Nungbi Khunou (Nungbi Khunao) artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower girl's necklace notes Tangkhul Nungbi Khunou (Nungbi Khunao) Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 4) "Cha" - Tangkhul girl's necklace. After marriage the more ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  71. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Nungha (Nunghar) artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower Tangkhul spear notes Nungha (Nunghar) 1940-02-15:1940-02-15 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 5) "Kachei" - Tangkhul spear; ordinary model, rather battered. From Nunghar ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  72. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Namkiabuing of Impoi Haichangnang private collection Mandu 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower stone-bowled tobacco pipe Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower stone-bowled tobacco pipe notes Namkiabuing of Impoi ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  73. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Laisong artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower young man's ear-plus and feather ornaments notes Laisong Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Buck's ear-plugs and feather ornaments. Worn by young men in full dress. Ngyia = ear-..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  74. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower drinking vessel 'trran' notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Trran Drinking-vessel for zao-kasang, made from fine bamboo and water-proofed with rubber-tree sap. These are obsolete or ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  75. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower wooden dishes notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Hekwok-pi (2) Wooden dishes on legs; one Angami (the mended one), the other a Zemi copy. Keme-ke-kwok, "goat's head plate" Large ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  76. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Zhekhuingba of Laisong private collection Khangnam Laisong 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower wooden models of daos Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 artefacts collected by Ursula Graham Bower wooden models of daos notes Zhekhuingba of Laisong Khangnam Laisong..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  77. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection food taboos notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Tiger & leopard: old men only wild dog: old men only leopard-cat: old men only rats & mice: eaten by none bamboo rat: eaten by men only bats: sometimes toasted & eaten..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  78. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection costume cane leggings notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Article obsolete or of special interest Cane leggings were formerly worn but have been abandoned (hada = cane leggings; hada moi-ra = wearing cane leggings). A story is ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  79. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection costume collars of boars' tusks or sections of conch shell, 'mpe' notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Mpe Collars of boars' tusks or of sections of conch-shell, called by the above name, used to be worn by the Zemi, but are now..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  80. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection costume armlets made of wild boars' tusks notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Nkia-peo-gim-tha ("Wild boar's tusk armlet") Armlets made of two tushes joined to form a ring are worn, especially by Naga Hills and Manipur State ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  81. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection costume headdress of hornbill feathers denoting sexual conquests notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Tala-na This headdress of hornbills' feathers may be worn by men of standing and of ability, chiefly in love. A large tail-..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  82. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection costume baldric denoting sexual conquests notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Kalang pung-ra heloma-gu This is the highest token of success in love-affairs that a man can win. As a pre-requisite he must have done some or all of..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  83. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection costume kilt notes Maruong Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection The kilt was formerly assumed much later that it is nowadays (i.e. at the first Hgangi after the boy attains a suitable age) and a young man went naked until the ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  84. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection costume hornbill feathers notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Hornbill tail-feathers: these cannot be worn by a virgin youth. If one should put on such a feather, even in fun, his hair would all fall out. Next R86330 R86330 ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  85. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    Zingkaolang of Maguilong Khutuing of Maguilong private collection Magulong (Maguilong) Paisa (Peisia) 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 notes Next costume taboo regarding women's petticoats Graham Bower Ursula Previous 27 costume taboo regarding women's petticoats notes Zingkaolang of Maguilong Khutuing of ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  86. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection 'deo-moni' necklaces notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection When a man buys a new necklace he puts it round the neck of a "lao" (gourd) for a few minutes before putting it on for the first time. Next R86332 R86332 Previous R86330 ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  87. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection new house ritual notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Houses When a new house is completed and the family move in, a dog must be put up on the bed for a few seconds before anyone may sleep on it. Next R86333 R86333 Previous ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  88. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection spirits notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection House-spirits All house and the village water-supply have benevolent spirits attached to them. They are very rarely seen, and then only as a floating light. The water-spirit (ta-kwa-..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  89. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Khangnam dekachangs notes nzun-ze Zemi Khangnam Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Nzun-ze: dekachangs used to, and should, have at least one nzun-ze, a massive sleeping-bench carved from a single gigantic log. Only 2 specimens are ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  90. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection divorce notes Zemi Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection General Divorce is allowed for incompatibility and desertion and adultery on the part of the wife; adultery by the husband is not a cause for divorce unless it amounts to ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  91. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection jhuming notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Cultivation (laws and customs relating to) Jhuming of virgin jungle: the owner of land on which anyone else cuts jhums in virgin jungle must give the cutter a pig as recompense for ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  92. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection gennas sickness genna - 'haraitsak' notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Haraitsak (Haraichak) (genna against sickness) Used 1) When a man taken ill outside his village is brought in; 2) When a man has died outside the village ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  93. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Hangrum gennas sickness genna - 'hera-na' notes Hangrum 1943-08-01:1943-08-01 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Hera-na (Hangrum) (1.8.43) The tingkhupeo proclaims a "na" all the villagers being inside the perimeter, in the evening..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  94. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection field gennas 'hemeo-kezab-ra' notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Hemeo-kezab-ra If the ground in a field cracks through drought or other causes, this genna must be performed, and also if a log left lying in the jhums sinks ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  95. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection field gennas 'huzam-kia' notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Huzam-kia Done for a slip in the jhums. Performed by tingkhupeo. A pig is offered to appease the hera who caused the slip and prevent it causing illness in the family..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  96. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection field gennas 'nei-ku-ra' notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Nei-ku-ra Performed if a dhan-stalk is found with 10 nodes or joints. Dhan must be carried in by an even number of men. Near village, the field-owner's family meet ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  97. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection field gennas 'ting-teo-go' notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Ting-teo-go (Laisong & Hangrum, Asalu use this only to get sun to ripen the harvest. Hangrum did this in the wet spring of '43 with great success, so Laisong ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  98. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection field gennas 'kaleo-da-ge-na' notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Another genna to stop rain: kaleo-da-ge-na It is performed by the tingkhupeo in the morning in front of the house of the representative of the village founder's ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  99. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection field gennas 'hazam kia-hera-teora' notes Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Hazam kia-hera-teora Performed if a field house catches fire; intended to recall the rice "which has run away in fear of the fire". Performed in the field,..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
  100. miscellaneous papers, notebooks and letters on Nagas by Ursula Graham Bower, 1937-1947
    1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Laisong gennas laxity over gennas notes Laisong 1946-01-24:1946-01-24 Graham Bower Ursula 1937-01-01:1946-12-31 private collection Note: On 24.1.46 Laisong village performed the ceremony hapao-lia-na, making offerings similar to those at Heramui and calling ..
    Last modification on 02 Nov 2011 at 16:08:12
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