The Nagas

Hill Peoples of Northeast India

Project Introduction The Naga Database

manuscript notes made by W.G. Archer between 1946 & 1948, and miscellaneous papers and letters

caption: history of the extermination of Ukha 1939-1945
medium: notes
location: Ukha Pangsha Agching (Aghching) Yakthu Shakchi Agching (Aoching) Yangnyu R. Tobu
date: 1939-1945
person: Archer/ W.G.
date: 1946-1948
refnum: 13:1
text: The History of the Extermination of Ukha. 1939-1945. D.C's no. 5449G dt. 28/11/39 to Commissioner: This village was burnt by Government in 1939 because it had joined with Pangsha and others to exterminate the village of Aghching, which lost 96 heads in the course of which guns had been used after Pangsha had in 1936 been expressly ordered not to do so and had taken oath they would refrain from such usage.
text: Information was sent to Ukha by Yakthu village that in future they were not to use guns against our control area villages.
text: S.D.O's no. 2546G dt. 27/3/41: Ukha in 1941 were again warned not to attack Shakchi and Aoching on our control area but a little later they did attack and were beaten off.
text: S.D.O's telegram dt. 27/3/41 & S.D.O's no. 275G dt. 30/5/41: Two more attacks followed in which Ukha used about forty guns and the
text: S.D.O. reported that the small villages in our control area were in danger of extermination.
text: D.C's no. 1646G dt. 26/6/41: The Deputy Commissioner then asked for an expedition against Ukha but the Governor's Secretary refused. His Excellency's sanction and moreover said Sub- Divisional Officer was wrong to have issued a general warning to trans Yangnyu villages not to raid control area. (Actually apart from other warnings by Naga Hills officials the Govt. of India had forbidden use of guns in our control area vide telegram no. 274 A.P. dated 6th January 1933 to the Deputy Commissioner.)
text: D.C's no. 3838G dt. 13/8/41: Deputy Commissioner asked for the orders to be reconsidered and quoted the tally of 279 heads in this troubled area. The refusal was reiterated.
text: D.C's no. 898G dt. 30/8/44 from Mokokchung camp: For a period the presence of American posts with Assam Rifle guard quietened things down but in July 1944 Ukha took a Tobu head. This was followed by other raids and again the Deputy Commissioner asked Governor's Adviser for permission to stop raiding on our side of the Yangnu R.
text: Letter dt. 23/9/44: Governor's Adviser adopted delaying tactics on ground that guns were not used.
text: D.C's no. 9516G dt. 24/3/45 to Governor's Adviser: By this time, the transfrontier villages were getting restless. Sub-Divisional Officer sent his Dobashis to enquire and they held a mass meeting at which all the local population decided that if Tobu did raid on our side of the Yangmun they would all continue to raid. In spite of this Ukha took a Tobu head whereupon in pursuance of the above agreement, Tobu was wiped out and lost 400 heads.
text: This dreadful massacre was entirely unnecessary and could have been easily avoided if the constant requests of the Deputy Commissioner and the Sub-Divisional Officer to be allowed to interfere had been granted.