The Nagas

Hill Peoples of Northeast India

Project Introduction The Naga Database

manuscript - Christoph von Furer-Haimendorf notebook twelve

caption: evil spirits and gods
medium: notes
ethnicgroup: Konyak
location: Wakching
date: 21.4.1937
person: Furer-Haimendorf
date: 24.3.1937-27.4.1937
note: [konyak] means text omitted
person: School of Oriental and African Studies Library, London
text: (135) There are many Gashis in the earth which catch the souls of men. Yong-wan are spirits in the air, which are hostile to men and cause illness. All present (Dzingben, Dzemang and others) emphatically assert (136) that there is only one Ghawang, but many Yong-wan. Yong-wan is occasionally invoked at gennas for illness, but always together with Ghawang. Shankok thinks Ghawang and Yongwan are identical and only two words for the same being. Chinkak, the Ang, thinks Ghawang is male and Yongwan female. The ideas about Yongwan are very vague. (137) Niem-long are spirits which are seen in the form of rainbows. When boys see a rainbow they say: [konyak]. In saying this they first bend their fingers, putting one on top of the other, and then open the hand, straightening the fingers. (138) Inf. Shankok