The Nagas

Hill Peoples of Northeast India

Project Introduction The Naga Database

part of original tour diary of Lt. R.G. Woodthorpe 1876

caption: High winds and burning of jhums; Ledum's destruction of Lungkhung; notes on the Burmese invasion and Assamese raids
medium: tours
ethnicgroup: DupdoriarPaniduarHatigoria
location: Yangemdi Hill Longmisa (Semamanting) Mongsenyimti (Boralangi) Yongyimti (Yangiemdi) Litim (Ledum) Lungkhung Lungkam (Nankam) Ungma Wanching (Tablung)
date: 17.2.1876
person: Woodthorpe/ R.G.
date: 1875-1876
person: Pitt Rivers Museum Archive, Oxford
text: Thursday 17th.
text: (Dull and cloudy morning. Little sun during day. Thunder shower in camp about 5 p.m. Very windy all day. Height of camp at 8.30 p.m. 4780/4600 M = 4690. Ditto of mark about 4 p.m. 5360/5100 M = 5230. Height of camp at 7 a.m. 4870/4800 M = 4805. Max = 75o. Min = 51o.)
text: Very windy indeed all last night. Could not sleep. Lit candle every two hours hoping that it was time to get up. The wind even shook my bed, getting in under the tent. Got up about 5.30. Started 6. Did a little plane tabling outside camp and followed coolies at 7. Went up to Yangemdi hill. Path rather narrow slippery and overgrown with grass and fern jungle. Got up to hill about 10.30. Started observing at once. Immense joom fires lighted beyond Semamanting at 11. Sent columns of thick smoke down valley. Fortunately the wind which somewhat interfered with my observations, also helped then in the way that it blew the smoke past us rapidly leaving a hilltop clear at intervals. They put up mark at 2 and I had little tiffin and then took vertical angles. Left at 4 and reached the camp a little after 6.
text: Enquired of Boralangi gaonbura about Yangiemdi. It was a village 8 years ago, but the Ledum men made a raid on it and cut up a large number of the inhabitants and carried off (36) women and children. Then the villagers left Yangemdi (so called from oldest inhabitants apparently) and came to live in Lungkhung which was then a village. Lately Ledum which seems to have some spite against these fellows has raided on Lungkhung, burned it and killed and carried off a comparatively large number of these villagers.
text: They say that the Burmese army came in via Nankam, Ungma (Mongmartin) and Semamanting burning all three and then proceeded via Tablung to the plains of Assam. I saw that the double name of villages are due partly to this invasion and to the raids of the Assam rajahs who gave the names to different tribes such as Dupdoriars, Paniduars, Hatigorias etc.