The Nagas

Hill Peoples of Northeast India

Project Introduction The Naga Database

published - extracts on Nagas from 'Assam Administration Report'

caption: Manipur
caption: Section 2. Relations with Tributary States and Frontier Affairs
caption: behaviour of hill tribes
medium: reports
ethnicgroup: MaoKabuiKuki
location: Songsao Khuzama Hungram Daochem Jiri R. (Jhiri R.) Mandu Khulel
date: 1900
date: 1901
text: 7. The hill tribes, with the exception of three instances noted below, behaved well, and gave every assistance to the census enumerators visiting their villages.
text: In June 1900, the village of Songsao of the Mao group, immediately on the border of the Naga Hills district, had a dispute with the adjoining Naga Hills vilalge of Khuzama about a deer, which had been wounded by Songsao, and finally killed by Khuzama on Khuzama land. In the circumstances, a certain share of the flesh should have been given to the Songsao hunters, but Khuzama declined to follow the custom, and, after a good deal of strong language on both sides, Songsao accepted a challenge to fight it out next day. The challenge having been accepted by Songsao, the village, about 80 strong, marched next morning to Khuzama to take up a position outside the village. Khuzama also turned out, and the fight commenced, when Songsao found itself at a disadvantages, as several Khuzama men came to the battle armed with spears, which were freely used. Being taken aback by the use of spears, Songsao quickly collected the wounded and retreated to its village, with the intention of re-arming. On the Mao side 3 men were killed and 23 wounded, and Khuzama had about 26 wounded. A fine of Rs. 200 was imposed on each village, and detachments of Military Police were stationed at the two villages. All ill-feeling is reported to have passed away for the present.
text: Another disturbance between two Naga villages, Hungram in the North Cachar Hills and Daochem in Manipur, arose from an infringement by Daochem men of the recognised rules of hunting. Some men of Hungram put up and wounded a deer, which crossed into Daoshem, where it was killed by the people of the latter village. The Daochem men kept the whole of the game to themselves, and refused to give the Hungram men the half share to which they were entitled. This greatly incensed the Hungram people, who in revenge forbade the Daoshem men from fishing in the part of the Jhiri river, near which the deer had been killed. About the end of October 1900, the chief headman of Daoshem, with a party from the village, went to fish in the prohibited reach of the Jhiri, when a party of Hungram men, headed by their mauzadar, met them and seized and carried off to Hungram the Daoshem headman and another man of that village; the rest of the party escaped. A large party of Daoshem villagers then went towards Hungram with the intention of rescuing the captives, and finding some Hungram men fishing in the Jhiri, carried off two of them as hostages. Subsequently the mauzadar of Hungram, accompanied by 18 men, proceeded to Daochem with their captives in order to exchange prisoners, but were severely beaten by Daoshem men on their arrival. The real facts were for some time concealed from the authorities by both parties, each of whom brought trumped-up charges against the other. The Subdivisional Officer of North Cachar Hills visited Daoshem and imposed a fine of Rs. 200 on each of the villages. The Mauzadar of Hungram was also fined half of his commission on the house-tax of his mauza for the year.
text: In the third case, some Kukis of Songsao visited the Kabui village of Mandu Khulel, near the Cachar border, and after drinking heavily commenced to quarrel with the Nagas, and one Naga was badly cut with a dao. The Kukis then left, but the Nagas, who live in fear of Kukis, deserted their village and fled across the border into British territory. The Political Agent visited the locality shortly afterwards, when he restored the Kabuis to their village and fined the Kukis for the assault.